It was premiered at the Esplanade Hotel in Zagreb the first Croatian gluten free standard under the name BOSK and gained the title by implementing strict standards the first Croatian certified hotel with a gluten free offer.Recent research confirms that gluten is one of the most prevalent food allergens. It is estimated that there are more than 70 million person sensitive and intolerant on gluten, 190 million person who avoid wheat and gluten te 11 million suffering from celiac disease, an autoimmune disease as the ultimate expression of gluten intolerance. These and many other gluten-related facts have led to the development of Bosk gluten free standards that will allow people on a gluten-free diet to visit restaurants and hotels that ensure Bosk gluten free certification by implementing strict standards, because cooking with gluten-free products is not enough for a restaurant. be gluten-free.”Prompted by his personal experience, living on a strict gluten-free diet and eager to socialize with family and friends in restaurants, the idea of developing a gluten-free standard was born. From now on, people on a gluten-free diet will be able to consume gluten-free meals in restaurants and hotels with confidence, knowing that the staff is familiar with the principles of preparing and serving such meals. ” said Denis Delogu, director of BOSK, which developed the standard.By the way, BOSK gluten free standard is a private standard developed by BOSK, with implementing partners – the Institute of Public Health of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Department of Health Ecology, and BOSK standard intendedSet featured image is to caterers and provides them with practical knowledge on the preparation, serving and distribution of gluten-free meals.As the first and only certified hotel, the Esplanade will allow its guests a safe visit to restaurants and order meals that suit their eating habits. “We are very proud that the Zagreb Esplanade was awarded the first gluten free certificate in Croatia and we believe that our guests, many of whom are on a gluten-free diet, will be extremely happy.” said Sanda Sokol, PR & Marketing Manager of Esplanade, a hotel that already has certifications such as HACCP, Halal and Kosher.
Four years ago, after hard work and efforts to popularize cycling in Croatia, as well as the city of Zagreb, through the introduction of a public bicycle system as a supplement to the existing public transport, a successful story began about the NexBike public bicycle system, one of the fastest growing startup projects in Croatia.Thus, at yesterday’s press conference on King Tomislav Square near the Central Station, where the first station with public bicycles in Croatia was set up four years ago, the results of the four-year operation of the Nextbike public bicycle system, one of the fastest growing, were presented. startup projects in Croatia. Public bicycles are an increasingly popular form of transport in 10 Croatian cities and municipalities (Zagreb, Karlovac, Gospić, Brinje, Slavonski Brod, Ivanić Grad, Zadar, Šibenik, Makarska and even on the island of Lastovo), and already by July this year as many as 5 new cities are introducing nextbike public bicycle system.The first among them are Velika Gorica and Sisak in May, followed by Jastrebarsko, Metković and Poreč by July. Last year, nextbike was launched in Sarajevo, where it was well received and in just one year it has 5.000 enthusiastic users.”We hope that the City of Zagreb, where we launched the first system of public bicycles in Croatia, will provide adequate support for the further development of this most popular form of sustainable mobility. Not only existing users are hoping for this, but also potential 100.000 new users, who would become real users if the network of stations is expanded to at least 50 locations throughout Zagreb. This should be accompanied by the improvement of cycling infrastructure as an essential prerequisite for the mass use of bicycles as a means of transport in general. People ask for it every day. “Points out Krešimir Dvorski, director of the company System of Public Bicycles.The Nextbike system of public bicycles in Croatia already has 20.000 registered users who have recognized it as the most affordable, fastest, healthiest and most fun transport in the city. Nextbike significantly reduces emissions, noise, traffic jams and parking problems, and cycling has a positive effect on the psychophysical health of all users, which can be confirmed by anyone who goes to work or college by bike. In the next year, Zagreb can overtake Ljubljana as the current leader in the region, which would be a big step forward for Zagreb in the context of sustainable mobility.In order to feel safer in traffic, Nextbike in cooperation with another Traffic Safety, the Faculty of Traffic Sciences and the Red Cross organizes several cycling schools every year and encourages cities to improve their cycling infrastructure. Nextbike is one of the shining examples of a fast-growing global movement called “sharing economy“And advocates the idea that people tend not to have to own everything. “Thanks to our own tangible and intangible investments, encouraged by passion and enthusiasm to afford Zagreb and other cities in Croatia and the region what some have long had, but also to sponsoring companies that have recognized the socially responsible component, we have saved the city budget more than three million kuna . I want only one thing, for my city to be a leader in sustainable mobility, leading a bike-sharing boom in Croatia so that our children, but also our only planet, will one day be gratefuland “concludes Dvorski.The public bicycle system is certainly a great complement to the tourist product for tourist destinations, and I would venture to say that it should be the standard tourist offer today, which unfortunately is not yet the case. Imagine that the whole island of Krk is connected by bikesharing stations or the entire Istrian coast, and why not Slavonia from Beli Manastir to Ilok, all connected with the local tourist offer.Sit down, drive and enjoy the indigenous tourist offer, what do you say?Related news: [SPIN CITY & NEXTBIKE] BY JOINT COOPERATION TO COMPLETE CITY TRANSPORT SERVICE IN ZAGREB
A bomb blast or a rough tackle can inflict brain damage that destroys lives. Yet at the time of impact, these injuries are often invisible. To detect head trauma immediately, a team of researchers has developed a polymer-based material that changes colors depending on how hard it is hit. The goal is to someday incorporate this material into protective headgear, providing an obvious indication of injury.The team will describe their approach in one of more than 9,000 presentations at the 250th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world’s largest scientific society, taking place here through Thursday.Recent research and media accounts have indicated that soldiers and professional athletes may suffer long-term complications — such as memory loss, headaches and dementia — stemming from past head trauma. In April, a lawsuit filed by a group of National Football League players was settled, requiring the organization to pay retired players with head injuries. And several professional hockey players are now suing the National Hockey League over the same issue. But even children playing contact sports may be at risk. LinkedIn Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email Share Pinterest There is no easy way to tell if someone has just sustained a brain injury, so soldiers and athletes may unknowingly continue to do the very activity that caused the damage and potentially cause more harm. But a force-responsive, color-changing patch could prevent additional injury, says Shu Yang, Ph.D. “If the force was large enough, and you could easily tell that, then you could immediately seek medical attention,” she explains.Yang’s team at the University of Pennsylvania used holographic lithography (HL) to create photonic crystals with carefully designed structures to give them a particular color, just like opals. Deforming the crystals with an applied force changes their internal structures, and thus the crystal’s color. The material does not require power to detect forces and is lightweight, thus offering an attractive way for medical personnel to identify a damaging force on-site without the use of expensive tools. However, making these crystals is an expensive process that isn’t suitable for the mass production, she says.So the team turned to self-assembly and polymer-based materials that are cheaper to produce over a large area than the earlier HL method. Younghyun Cho, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Yang’s lab, will describe the team’s development, which could offer a path to commercialization.The first step was to mold the polymer into a structure that worked just like the specialized photonic crystals. To make a mold, the researchers mixed up silica particles of various sizes and allowed them to self-assemble into crystals with the desired pattern. They heated the polymer, which infiltrated the mold, allowed it to solidify and then removed the silica mold, leaving behind the inversed polymer crystals.The researchers then applied varying amounts of force to the polymer crystal and recorded the color change. The results were encouraging. “We were able to change the color consistently with certain forces,” Yang says. For example, applying a 30 mN force — approximately the force of a sedan moving at 80 miles per hour crashing into a brick wall — caused the crystal to change from red to green. A force of 90 mN — the equivalent of a speeding truck hitting that same wall — turned the polymer purple, Cho adds.“This force is right in the range of a blast injury or a concussion,” Yang says.In future studies, Yang plans to develop materials that can indicate how quickly a force is applied, which affects how damaging a particular trauma is on the brain.
Professor Wagner Marcenes, who led the study at Queen Mary University of London, explains: “Our research adopted a broad definition of ‘family’ and we included single parents, and those who are divorced, co-habiting, and same sex family types.”The report shows that children from more functional families were 67 per cent less likely to consume more than four intakes of sugary foods and drinks a day, compared with children from less functional families.“Effective family functioning is a safeguard against the well-known negative impact of lower levels of education in relation to sugar consumption” Professor Marcenes continued. “A significant number of children whose mothers had a lower level of qualification but whose family functioning was effective were more likely to consume less than four intakes of sugary foods compared with their counterparts whose family functioning was impaired. ”The research involved 1,174 children aged three and four years, and their parents, and aimed to investigate the importance of family functioning for health.The ELF study is a major two generation family study involving more than 50 researchers. It is believed to be the first study which demonstrates that high sugar consumption is related to poor family functioning.The report demonstrated that effective family functioning led to a healthy diet even among those with lower education, living in a deprived area and experiencing financial challenges.Professor Marcenes explains: “We live in a very materialistic world but material resources alone cannot fulfil us. We also need to meet our psychological needs. A functional family is a major source of pleasure in life, providing comfort and reward. In contrast, dysfunctional families are a major source of frustration and stress – and this can lead to high sugar consumption in the search for the ‘feel-good’ effect.”Dr Sucharita Nanjappa, University of Dundee, who co-authored this report and was involved in many different aspects of the ELF study says: “This study gathered information on the whole family’s day to day experiences. This has the potential to lead to interventions that are based on identifying, encouraging and developing the family’s own positive resources to help improve the health of its members – through the acquisition of healthy lifestyle.”These findings have major implications for population health. Eating too much sugar is linked to a long list of negative health effects, including diabetes, heart disease, obesity and tooth decay.Recently, a committee of scientists has advised the World Health Organization (WHO) and governments that no more than 5 per cent of daily calories should come from added sugar (about seven teaspoons). This is far less than the current average intake of sugar worldwide.Professor Wagner Marcenes concludes: “Public health needs to move beyond the naïve belief that health education based on risk awareness raising programmes alone will lead to behavioural change across the population. If this were the case, doctors and nurses would not smoke, drink above the limit and eat sweets.“It is crucial to understand why we crave for sugar and to identify factors that help people to deal with sugar craving. We need to focus on the wider determinants of health behaviour and lifestyle, such as socio-psychological factors.”The next step in this research programme is to develop a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve family functioning. LinkedIn Email The quality of general family functioning is a major determinant of healthy dietary habits – according to new research published in the Journal of Caries Research and led by Queen Mary University of London.The East London Family (ELF) Study found that a mother’s perception of effective general family functioning has a significant effect on limiting the intake of sugary foods and drinks by their three and four year old children. In contrast, less effective family functioning leads to high frequency intake of sugary foods and drinks by three and four year old children in the family.‘Effective family functioning’ was defined as a family which is able to manage daily life and resolve problems in the context of warm and affective family interactions, through clear communication, well-defined roles and flexible behaviour control. Share on Facebook Share Pinterest Share on Twitter
Due to the relative simplicity of fruit fly neural anatomy — there are just two synapses separating odor-detecting antenna from an olfactory-memory brain center called the mushroom body — the diminutive insects have provided a powerful model organism for studying learning.Historically, researchers have monitored neurons in the mushroom body, as well as others to which they send signals, using a technique called calcium imaging. This approach enabled previous researchers to observe changes in neural activity that accompany learning. However this technique doesn’t reveal precise how the electrical activity of the neurons is modified, since calcium is not the only ion involved in neuronal signaling.Additionally, it was unclear how the changes that had been seen were related to the behavior of the animal.Turner and colleagues at CSHL and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Research Campus were able to zoom in to a particularly important part of the fly brain where they were able to connect neural activity to behavior. Toshihide Hige, the lead author of the paper, used his expertise in electrophysiological recordings to directly examine changes in synaptic strength at this site.The researchers exposed fruit flies to a specific test odor and a very short time later subjected them to an artificial aversive cue. To do so they fired tiny beams of laser light at dopamine-releasing neurons in the mushroom body that were genetically engineered to become active in response to the light. Just like our own neurons, dopamine-releasing neurons in the fly are involved in reward and punishment.” Presenting the smell of cherries, for example, which is normally an attractive odor to flies, while at the same time stimulating a particular dopamine neuron, trains the fly to avoid cherry odor,” Turner explains.In addition to the dopamine neurons, the team identified neurons that represented the test odor and neurons that represented the flies’ behavioral response to that odor. These neurons are connected to each other, while the dopamine neurons, which represent the punishment signal, modulate that connection. The team then made recordings of the neurons representing the behavior. This enabled them to discover any changes to the synaptic inputs those neurons received from the odor-representing neurons before and after learning.Strikingly, the team found a dramatic reduction in the synaptic inputs upon subsequent presentations of the test odor, but not control odors. This drop reflected the decrease in the attractiveness of the odor that resulted from the learning. “The average drop in synaptic strength was around 80 percent — that’s huge,” says Turner.In future studies, Turner plans to exploit powerful tools available for studying fruit fly genetics to better understand the genetic components of learning. “We now have a way of investigating synaptic changes with genetic tools to identify molecules involved in learning and really understand the phenomenon at a level that bridges molecular and physiological mechanisms,” he says.“That mechanistic level of understanding is going to be really important,” he adds. “It’s often at the level of molecules that you see really strong connections between Drosophila and other species, including humans.” LinkedIn Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share Email Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have resolved a decades-long debate about how the brain is modified when an animal learns.Using newly developed tools for manipulating specific populations of neurons, the researchers have for the first time observed direct evidence of synaptic plasticity — changes in the strength of connections between neurons — in the fruit fly brain while flies are learning.“We showed something that people have been hoping to see for a long time,” says the team leader, CSHL Associate Professor Glenn Turner, “and we showed it quite definitively.” The results appear online today in the journal Neuron. Pinterest
Email Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Pinterest Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed a new approach to broadly survey learning-related changes in synapse properties. In a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience and featured on the journal’s cover, the researchers used machine-learning algorithms to analyze thousands of images from the cerebral cortex. This allowed them to identify synapses from an entire cortical region, revealing unanticipated information about how synaptic properties change during development and learning. The study is one of the largest electron microscopy studies ever carried out, evaluating more subjects and more images than prior researchers have attempted.As the brain learns and responds to sensory stimuli, its neurons make connections with one another. These connections, called synapses, facilitate neuronal communication, and their anatomic and electrophysiological properties contain information vital to understanding how the brain behaves in health and disease. Researchers use different techniques, including electron microscopy, to identify and analyze synapse properties. While electron microscopy can be a useful tool for reconstructing neural circuits, it is also data and labor intensive. As a result, researchers have only been able to use it to study small, targeted areas of the brain until now.Studying a large section of the brain using traditional electron microscopy techniques would result in terabytes of unwieldy data, given that the brain has billions of neurons, each with hundreds to thousands of synaptic connections. The new technique developed at Carnegie Mellon simplifies this problem by combining a specialized staining process with machine learning. LinkedIn “Instead of getting perfect information from a tiny part of the brain, we can now get lower-resolution information from a huge region of the brain,” said Alison Barth, professor of biological sciences and interim director of Carnegie Mellon’s BrainHub neuroscience initiative. “This could be a great tool to see how disease progresses, or how drug treatments alter or restore synaptic connections.”This research is the latest example of how researchers with Carnegie Mellon’s BrainHub research initiative are combining their expertise in biology and computer science to create new tools to advance neuroscience. The technique uses a special chemical preparation that deeply stains the synapses in a sample of brain tissue. When the tissue is imaged using an electron microscope, only the synapses can be seen, creating an image that can be easily classified by a computer program. Researchers then use machine learning algorithms to identify and compare synapse properties across a column of the cerebral cortex.To test the effectiveness of their technique, the researchers, led by Santosh Chandrasekaran, examined how synapses across a complex circuit, composed of hundreds of interconnected neurons, would change with altered somatosensory input. In the past, Barth has used this model to study how neurons behave and synapses form in both learning and development. But traditional techniques only allowed her to look at neurons in a very small area of the neocortex.“It was like looking for the perfect gift, but only going to one store. We might have been able to find something at that first location, but it was always possible that we might find something else – maybe even something better – at another place,” said Barth, who is a member of the joint Carnegie Mellon/University of Pittsburgh Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition (CNBC). “This new technique allows us to look across all six layers of the neocortex, and to see how synapses across different parts of the circuit change together.”The researchers analyzed close to 25,000 images and 40,000 synapses, exponentially more than they were ever able to look at before using traditional methods. They found that the technique could be used to determine increases in synapse density and size during development and learning. Most notably, they found that synapse properties changed in a coordinated way across the entire region of the neocortex examined.“Some of the cortical layers we saw were most affected have never been examined systematically before,” explains Barth. “We’ve got a lot of great leads to follow up on.”The researchers are now beginning to use this data to develop new hypotheses about how synapses are organized in the neocortex in response to sensory input.
Share Pinterest Share on Facebook Email Share on Twitter LinkedIn One of the most intriguing physics discoveries of the last century was the existence of antimatter, material that exists as the “mirror image” of subatomic particles of matter, such as electrons, protons and quarks, but with the opposite charge. Antimatter deepened our understanding of our universe and the laws of physics, and now the same idea is being proposed to explain something equally mysterious: memory.When memories are created and recalled, new and stronger electrical connections are created between neurons in the brain. The memory is represented by this new association between neurons. But a new theory, backed by animal research and mathematical models, suggests that at the same time that a memory is created, an “antimemory” is also spawned – that is, connections between neurons are made that provide the exact opposite pattern of electrical activity to those forming the original memory. Scientists believe that this helps maintain the balance of electrical activity in the brain.The growth of stronger connections between neurons, known as an increase in excitation, is part of the normal process of learning. Like the excitement that we feel emotionally, a little is a good thing. However, also like emotional excitement, too much of it can cause problems. In fact, the levels of electrical activity in the brain are finely and delicately balanced. Any excessive excitation in the brain disrupts this balance. In fact, electrical imbalance is thought to underlie some of the cognitive problems associated with psychiatric and psychological conditions such as autism and schizophrenia.In trying to understand the effects of imbalance, scientists reached the conclusion that there must be a second process in learning that acts to rebalance the excitation caused by the new memory and keep the whole system in check. The theory is that, just as we have matter and antimatter, so there must be an antimemory for every memory. This precise mirroring of the excitation of the new memory with its inhibitory antimemory prevents a runaway storm of brain activity, ensuring that the system stays in balance. While the memory is still present, the activity it caused has been subdued. In this way, antimemories work to silence the original memory without erasing it.What does an antimemory do?The evidence for antimemories so far comes only from experimental work in rats and mice and evidence from modelling. These experiments require direct recording from inside the brain using electrodes, and given that putting metal probes into human brains typically is frowned upon, scientists have not yet been able to directly support the presence of antimemories in humans. In a paper just published in the journal Neuron, a team of researchers from the University of Oxford and University College London have come up with a clever method to determine whether human memory operates on similar lines to those of our animal cousins.Test subjects were asked to learn a task that created a new memory. When the researchers used fMRI brain scanning to examine the brain a few hours after learning, however, they found no trace of the memory, as it had been quietened by the antimemory. They then applied a weak flow of electricity in the area of the brain where the memory had formed (using a safe technique called anodal transcranial direct current stimulation). This allowed them to reduce inhibitory brain activity in this area – disrupting the inhibitory antimemory and thus revealing the hidden memory. How the antimemory counters the brain activity of a memory. Credit: HC Barron et al/NeuronThis diagram shows four coloured shapes that will be paired together by the test participant during a memory task. The two pairs of shapes are learned, with the memory represented by the orange connections between them. Having learned this pairing, the excitation in the brain caused by learning and creating the memory is balanced out by an inhibitory antimemory, represented by the new grey lines. The yellow boxes below represent the rate of firing of neurons during this learning process. At first, before pairing, they respond only to the red square. After learning the pairing of the red and green squares, the neurons fire to either stimulus. As the antimemory develops this association is silenced and neurons activate only in response to the red stimulus. Finally, after temporarily disturbing the antimemory, the underlying association is evident once again, with the neurons activating to either stimulus.So it seems that in humans as well as in animals, antimemories are critical to prevent a potentially dangerous build-up of electrical excitation in the brain, something that could lead to epileptic-like brain states and seizures. It’s thought antimemories may also play an important role in stopping memories from spontaneously activating each other, which would lead to confusion and severely disordered thought processes.Just as the mathematical theory of antimatter and its later discovery in nature and creation in a lab was hugely important to 20th century physics, it seems that the investigation of these enigmatic antimemories will be potentially revolutionary for our understanding of the brain and an important focus for the coming century.By Harriet Dempsey-Jones, Researcher in Clinical Neurosciences, University of OxfordThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
LinkedIn A new study in the journal Social Psychology provides evidence that wearing glasses can increase the electoral chances of political candidates.“A range of research has shown that appearance can influence election success. However, most studies focused on general appearance (e.g. ‘Who looks more competent?’). If specific features were examined, they were mostly unchangeable, for example the shape of the face,” said study author Alexandra Fleischmann of the University of Cologne.“In contrast to that, we were interested in whether glasses – a specific feature that politicians could easily change – could also have an impact on election success.” Share Pinterest Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Email Fleischmann and her colleagues used Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to conduct eight experiments to investigate how wearing glasses impacted hypothetical political candidates.The researchers found that participants from the United States were more likely to vote for politicians when they wore glasses. Glasses had a positive effect for both liberals and conservatives, but the effect was stronger among more liberal participants.However, the positive effect of glasses was influenced by situational factors. Participants favored candidates in glasses after being told the most important problem facing the country was complex legislative problems. But this positive effect went away when participants were instead told the most important problem was an attack from a neighboring country.“Glasses seem to make you look more competent and intelligent, but less dominant. As competence is very important for election success, people seem to vote for politicians wearing glasses more,” Fleischmann told PsyPost.The findings did not extend to participants in India. Fleischmann and her colleagues found that this could be because of differences in cultural stereotypes about glasses.“We found it very interesting that glasses did not help politicians in India. While Indian participants also cared for intelligence in their politicians, they simply did not associate glasses with intelligence — potentially, because glasses are rarely worn in India in contrast to the U.S. or other Western countries.”The study — like all research — includes some limitations.“Participants in our studies did not know much about the politicians, except for their appearance. Additionally, they only indicated who they would vote for, but knew that this would have no real-world effect,” Fleischmann explained.“We therefore measured the pure effect of glasses, and this effect might be less strong in real elections. Of course, it would be interesting to study the effect in a real election, though random assignment of glasses to politicians would not be possible there.”The study, “You Can Leave Your Glasses on Glasses Can Increase Electoral Success“, was authored by Alexandra Fleischmann, Joris Lammers, Janka I. Stoker, and Harry Garretsen.
Email Share Share on Facebook LinkedIn Share on Twitter New research suggests that a subgroup of people may respond differently to the drug ecstasy thanks to reductions in a molecule that regulates serotonin signaling between brain cells. The study has been published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology.“My research group is interested in how genetic and/or early environmental factors shape our brain and behaviour. Particularly as we know that these factors play a crucial role in our susceptibility to psychiatric disorders,” said study author Bart A. Ellenbroek of Victoria University of Wellington and the Behavioural Neurogenetics Group.“In this study, we investigated to what extent a genetic disruption of the serotonin transporter (a key protein involved in the regulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin) in rats affects the response to MDMA (the active ingredient of ecstasy).” Pinterest The serotonin transporter is a protein acts like a vacuum for serotonin, sucking up the neurotransmitter after it has been used for neuronal signaling. Rats that lacked this protein had trouble discriminating between the effects of MDMA and the stimulate amphetamine.Both MDMA and amphetamine increase levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the brain. But the findings suggest that MDMA’s effects are much more strongly impacted by serotonin.The findings also have some implications for humans.“Genetic reductions in the serotonin transporter are very common in humans (in the Western world about 30% of people have a reduction). Thus our study suggests that humans are likely to respond very differently as well,” Ellenbroek told PsyPost.“While ecstasy has a relatively low risk of leading to addiction, our study (as well as previous papers from our group) suggest that in these genetically vulnerable rats, ecstasy is much more addictive.”But the research — like all studies — includes some limitations.“There are two major caveats. First, the rats have a stronger genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter than humans typically have, and thus we would need to repeat this study with rats with a reduction similar to humans,” Ellenbroek explained.“Secondly, and most importantly, rats are not small humans, and while the basic pharmacology between rats and humans is quite similar, the translation from animal to human research is notoriously difficult. Thus studies in humans are essential to confirm (or disprove) our claims.”The study, “A genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter differentially influences the behavioural effects of MDMA”, was authored by Michaela Pettie, Alana Oakly, David N. Harper and Bart A. Ellenbroek.
Share on Facebook Pinterest Share Email New research provides evidence that the psychological impact of racial incidents is related to White racial identity. The study suggests that those with a non-racist White identity tend to brush off negative race‐based experiences, while those who embrace supremacist attitudes or deny the significance of race are more likely to report distress.The findings appear in the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.“As a Professor of Psychology, I study the psychological impact of racism on Black Americans and other people of Color. In some instances, experiences of racism can be so stressful that they meet criteria for traumatic stress or trauma,” explained study author Veronica E. Johnson, an assistant professor at City University of New York. “The impact of these experiences can be extremely harmful leading to intrusive thoughts about the incident (e.g., nightmares, flashbacks), avoidance (i.e., people and places that remind you of the incident), and hypervigilance, among other symptoms. I, along with my colleagues, were interested in this topic because we know that White American people make claims that they experience stressful racial incidents (e.g., reverse racism) but were unsure if the extent of the psychological impact of these incidents met the criteria for racial trauma.”In the study, 145 White adults completed a psychological assessment known as the Race-Based Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale. The participants were asked to describe three of the most memorable experiences of racism that had occurred in their lives. They then selected the one event that was the most memorable, and answered a series of yes/no questions about its impact.The most commonly cited events among the participants involved race-based verbal assaults — such as being called a “cracker.” The second most common event was experiencing racism vicariously.“We generally found that White Americans did not experience racial trauma. When Whites did report negative racial incidents, they tended to be vicarious experiences, where they were not the intended targets, such as witnessing a person of color experience racism, or violating racial rules (e.g., ‘Getting lost in a Black neighborhood and being told I was in the wrong area.’) These incidents rarely had a significant and adverse impact on psychological functioning. When racial incidents were psychologically impactful, they resulted in increased anger and hypervigilance,” Johnson told PsyPost. The participants in the study also completed the White Racial Identity Attitudes Scale, which examines how Whites understand racial relations and how they incorporate race into their self-concepts.“For the small number of White Americans who did report symptoms of racial trauma, they were also found to hold beliefs of White racial superiority and were generally naïve to systemic racism and White privilege. Therefore, it appears the White Americans most likely to complain of harm from racism, simply know little to nothing about it. Further, it may be that a belief in White racial superiority makes one particularly susceptible to White fragility, or expectations for comfort in cross-racial interactions and low tolerance for race-based stress,” Johnson explained.“Understanding the way in which a White American thinks about race is important. White Americans who endorse racial trauma do not have a complex understanding of race in the U.S. and thus may erroneously equate their racial experiences with psychological harm. However, White Americans with a complex understanding of race, appear to understand that racial discrimination, while uncomfortable for them, is not connected to harmful and dangerous consequences (e.g., being murdered by police, being fired from one’s job, etc.) like it is for Americans of color.”The study, “Race‐Based Stress in White Adults: Exploring the Role of White Racial Identity Status Attitudes and Type of Racial Events“, was authored by Robert T. Carter, Katheryn Roberson, and Veronica E. Johnson. LinkedIn Share on Twitter